NEWS AND EVENTS

16/Jul/2019

WHAT IS HEPATITIS A?

Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. It can range from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a severe illness lasting several months. Although rare, hepatitis A can cause death in some people.

HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED?

Hepatitis  A can be got from contaminated food or water or from close contact with a person or object that’s infected including sexual encounters. It does not spread through sneezing or coughing.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?

  • Fatigue
  • Sudden nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially on the upper right side beneath your lower ribs (by your liver)
  • Clay-colored bowel movements
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Dark urine
  • Joint pain
  • Yellowing of the skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
  • Intense itching

WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?

You’re at increased risk of hepatitis A if you:

  • Travel or work in areas of the world where hepatitis A is common
  • Attend childcare or work in a childcare center
  • Live with another person who has hepatitis A
  • Have any type of sexual contact with someone who has hepatitis A
  • Are HIV positive
  • Have a clotting-factor disorder, such as hemophilia
  • Use any type of illegal drugs (not just those that are injected)

HOW IS HEPATITIS A DIAGNOSED?

  • Through a blood screening test
  • The test cost the average rage of Kes.  1,500-4,500
  • The tests are available at trusted labs and hospital. You can follow this link for an offer at Imara Mediplus Hospital for a discounted test.  https://www.imaramed.org/

If I have had hepatitis A in the past, can I get it again?

  • Once you recover from hepatitis A, you develop antibodies that protect you from the virus for life. (An antibody is a substance found in the blood that the body produces in response to a virus. They protect the body from disease by attaching to the virus and destroying it.)

How soon after exposure to hepatitis A will symptoms appear?

  • If symptoms occur, they usually start appearing 4 weeks after exposure, but can occur as early as 2 and as late as 7 weeks after exposure. Symptoms usually develop over a period of several days.

 

How long do hepatitis A symptoms last?

  • Symptoms usually last less than 2 months, although some people (10%–15%) with hepatitis A can have symptoms for as long as 6 months.

 

Can a person spread hepatitis A without having symptoms?

  • Many people, especially children, have no symptoms. In addition, a person can transmit the virus to others up to 2 weeks before symptoms appear.

 

How is hepatitis A treated?

  • Un-vaccinated people who have been exposed recently (within 2 weeks) to the hepatitis A virus should get the hepatitis A vaccine or a shot of immune globulin to prevent severe illness. To treat the symptoms of hepatitis A, doctors usually recommend rest, adequate nutrition, and fluids. Some people will need medical care in a hospital. It can take a few months before people with hepatitis A begin to feel better.

HOW CAN IT BE PREVENTED

  • Vaccinations
  • Practice hygiene eg. Proper hand hygiene after using the bathroom, using clean uncontaminated water for drinking or cooking

 

Reference:

  1. Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
  2. Lai M. Hepatitis A virus infection in adults: An overview. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Aug. 8, 2017.

16/May/2019

WHAT IS CHOLERA? 

  • It is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated even to previously healthy people.

WHAT ARE ITS CAUSES?

  • It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.
  • The bacteria are usually found in food or water contaminated by feces from a person with the infection.

HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED?

  • When a person consumes the contaminated food or water, the bacteria release a toxin in the intestines that produces severe diarrhea.
  • Therefore, it is highly unlikely that you will catch cholera just from casual contact with an infected person.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?

  • Symptoms of cholera can begin as soon as a few hours or as long as five days after infection and are as follows;
  1. severe watery diarrhea.
  2. Nausea and vomiting.
  3. Dehydration which may lead to a rapid loss of minerals in your blood (electrolytes) that maintain the balance of fluids in your body. This is called an electrolyte imbalance.

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF DEHYDRATION? 

  1. Rapid heart rate
  2. Loss of skin elasticity (the ability to return to original position quickly if pinched)
  3. Dry mucous membranes, including the inside of the mouth, throat, nose, and eyelids
  4. Low blood pressure
  5. Thirst
  6. Muscle cramps

If left untreated, dehydration can lead to shock and death in a matter of hours

HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED?

  • Although the symptoms are unmistakable, it is advisable to perform a cholera Antigen test that is later confirmed by a stool culture test

HOW CAN IT BE PREVENTED?

  • Yes, through vaccination that lasts for up to five years and observance of clean hygienic procedures.

 

HOW IS IT TREATED?

  • Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, it’s important to get cholera treatment right away.
  • Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids.
  • Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.

 

Author:

Sal Mukinda, Lab Superintendent, IMH

References:

  1. The incubation period of cholera: a systematic review. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201968 Azman AS, Rudolph KE, Cummings DA, Lessler J. J Infect. 2013;66(5):432-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.11.013. PubMed PMID: 23201968; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3677557.
  2. Cholera Annual Report 2017 http://www.who.int/wer/2018/wer9338/en/
    Weekly Epidemiological Record 21 September 2018, Vol 93, 38 (pp 489-500).
  3. Debasish S, LaRocque RC. Cholera and Other Vibrios. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9thed. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2013: 448-453.
  4. David A Sack, Mohammed Ali. Protection from killed oral cholera vaccine continues for 4 years. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(18)30311-5/fulltext

 


17/Jan/2019

human milk does not suddenly turn to water after a certain length of time! Mothers can nurse their babies for as long as both they and their children wish to continue. Children will wean all by themselves when they are developmentally ready to do so.

Your milk continues to provide both food and health benefits even after your baby has begun to eat other foods. In fact, it continues to be the most important part of your baby’s diet until he is about a year old. Doctors recommends that babies continue to nurse until they are at least a year old and that the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends continuing to nurse for at least two years.

Weaning is a process, not an event!

As he gets older, your baby will gradually eat more table foods. You will notice that he needs to nurse less frequently or for shorter periods of time. However, babies nurse for many reasons besides the need for food. Even when he becomes a toddler, your baby may still need to nurse when it’s time to go to sleep.

There will also be days when he needs to nurse more than usual: perhaps when he is teething or coming down with a cold. Nursing can help him cope with these upsets as he progresses in natural weaning, your little one will be too busy exploring the world to nurse as often.

Remember, you can always get a second opinion!

Start by substituting a bottle for one nursing a day for about a week. Keep your baby’s favorite nursing sessions for the last. Follow your baby’s lead as much as possible. For example, if he is sick, you may want to nurse a little more often until he is feeling better again. Unless there is an urgent reason for immediate weaning, it is easier on both of you to go slowly.

Remember, you know your baby best, and you know what is best for your family. Trust your instincts, and you won’t go far wrong

References:

1. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
2. The World Health Organization (WHO)

 


Imara Mediplus Hospital

We are a multi-speciality healthcare facility founded and managed by doctors, focused on providing holistic care all under one roof.

The goal of The Imara Mediplus is to provide our clients with the all necessary services required to achieve both health and wellness. We seek to conveniently serve any person in need of friendly, professional, quality assured medical services, without the worry of cost.

Copyright by Imara Mediplus Hospital 2018. All rights reserved.